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Subrion 4.1 CMS is a powerful and flexible open source Content Management System (CMS) that brings an intuitive and clear content management workflow to your web publishing projects. Subrion 4.1 CMS features a plentiful supply of free plugins and templates, a powerful user privileges system, an advanced framework API which allows developers to quickly build custom platform extensions, and integrated Smarty templating and WYSIWYG editors for flexible semantic HTML content generation.
In this tutorial we are going to install Subrion 4.1 CMS on a Debian 9 LAMP VPS using Apache web server, PHP 7.1, and a MariaDB database.
We will start by adding a new
First, log into your server as
sudo command isn't installed by default in the Vultr Debain 9 server instance, so we will first install
apt-get -y install sudo
Now add a new user called
user1 (or your preferred username):
When prompted, enter a secure and memorable password. You will also be prompted for your "Full Name" and some other details, but you can simply leave them blank by pressing
Now check the
/etc/sudoers file to make sure that the
sudoers group is enabled:
Look for a section like this:
%sudo ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL
This line tells us that users who are members of the
sudo group can use the
sudo command to gain
root privileges. It should be uncommented by default so you can simply exit the file.
Next we need to add
user1 to the
usermod -aG sudo user1
We can verify the
user1 group membership and check that the
usermod command worked with the
Now use the
su command to switch to the new sudo user
su - user1
The command prompt will update to indicate that you are now logged into the
user1 account. You can verify this with the
Now restart the
sshd service so that you can login via
ssh with the new non-root sudo user account you have just created:
sudo systemctl restart sshd
root account (which will disconnect your
You can now
ssh into the server instance from your local host using the new non-root sudo user
If you want to execute sudo without having to type a password every time, then open the
/etc/sudoers file again, using
Edit the section for the
sudo group so that it looks like this:
%sudo ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
Please note: Disabling the password requirement for the sudo user is not a recommended practice, but it is included here as it can make server configuration much more convenient and less frustrating, especially during longer systems administration sessions. If you are concerned about the security implications, you can always revert the configuration change to the original after you finish your administration tasks.
Whenever you want to log into the
root user account from within the
sudo user account, you can use one of the following commands:
sudo -i sudo su -
You can exit the
root account and return back to your
sudo user account any time by simply typing:
Before installing any packages on the Debian server instance, we will first update the system.
Make sure you are logged in to the server using a non-root sudo user and run the following commands:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get -y upgrade
Install the Apache web server:
sudo apt-get -y install apache2
Then use the
systemctl command to start and enable Apache to execute automatically at boot time:
sudo systemctl enable apache2 sudo systemctl start apache2
Check your Apache default site configuration file to ensure that the
DocumentRoot directive points to the correct directory:
sudo vi /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf
DocumentRoot configuration option will look like this:
We now need to enable the
mod_rewrite Apache module, so ensure that your Apache deafult site configuration file is still open, and add the following
Directory Apache directives just before the closing
</VirtualHost> tag, so that the end of your configuration file looks like this:
<Directory /var/www/html/> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews AllowOverride All Order allow,deny allow from all </Directory> </VirtualHost>
The most important directive shown above is
Now save and exit the file, and enable the
mod_rewrite Apache module:
sudo a2enmod rewrite
We will restart Apache at the end of this tutorial, but restarting Apache regularly during installation and configuration is certainly a good habit, so let's do it now.
sudo systemctl restart apache2
We can now install PHP 7.0 along with all of the necessary PHP modules required by Subrion CMS:
sudo apt-get -y install php php-gd php-mbstring php-common php-mysql php-imagick php-xml libapache2-mod-php php-curl php-tidy php-zip
Debian 9 defaults to using MariaDB database server, which is an enhanced, fully open source, community developed, drop-in replacement for MySQL server.
Install MariaDB database server:
sudo apt-get -y install mariadb-server
Start and enable MariaDB server to execute automatically at boot time:
sudo systemctl enable mariadb sudo systemctl start mariadb
Secure your MariaDB server installation:
root password will be blank, so simply hit enter when prompted for the
When prompted to create a MariaDB/MySQL
root user, select "Y" (for yes) and then enter a secure
root password. Simply answer "Y" to all of the other yes/no questions as the default suggestions are the most secure options.
Log into the MariaDB shell as the MariaDB
root user by running the following command:
sudo mariadb -u root -p
To access the MariaDB command prompt, simply enter the MariaDB
root password when prompted.
Run the following queries to create a MariaDB database and database user for Subrion CMS:
CREATE DATABASE subrion_db CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci; CREATE USER 'subrion_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'UltraSecurePassword'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON subrion_db.* TO 'subrion_user'@'localhost'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT;
You can replace the database name
subrion_db and username
subrion_user with something more to your liking, if you prefer. Also, make sure that you replace "UltraSecurePassword" with an actually secure password.
Change your current working directory to the default web directory:
If you get an error message saying something like
'No such file or directory' then try the following command:
cd /var/www/ ; sudo mkdir html ; cd html
Your current working directory will now be:
/var/www/html/. You can check this with the
pwd (print working directory) command:
wget to download the Subrion CMS installation package:
sudo wget https://tools.subrion.org/get/latest.zip
List the current directory to check that you have successfully downloaded the file:
sudo rm index.html
Let's quickly install
unzip so we can unzip the file:
sudo apt-get -y install unzip
Now uncompress the zip archive:
sudo unzip latest.zip
Change ownership of the web files to avoid any permissions problems:
sudo chown -R www-data:www-data * ./
Restart Apache again:
sudo systemctl restart apache2
Now we're ready to move on to the final step.
It's time to visit the IP address of your server instance in your browser, or if you've already configured your Vultr DNS settings (and given it enough time to propagate) you can simply visit your domain instead.
To access the Subrion CMS installation page, enter your Vultr instance IP address into your browser address bar, followed by
Most of the installation options are self explanatory, but here are a few pointers to help you along:
The first page is a
Pre-Installation Check so simply make sure that everything looks good and then click
Next to accept the Subrion License.
You can leave the
General options on the
Configuration page at their default values.
Enter the following database details in the
Database section of the
DB Hostname: localhost DB Username: subrion_user DB Password: UltraSecurePassword DB Name: subrion_db DB Port: 3306 Table Prefix: sb_
Enter the following details in the
Administrator Configuration section:
Username: admin Password: <admin password> Confirm Password: <same admin passwword> Email: <admin email address>
Install button to finalise the Subrion CMS installation.
You will be redirected to a confirmation page informing you that installation was
For security purposes, we now need to delete the installation script
sudo rm /var/www/html/install/modules/module.install.php
While we're here, we'll also secure the config file:
sudo chmod 400 /var/www/html/includes/config.inc.php
To access the admin section simply click on the
to Admin panel button and then enter your username and password. If you aren't redirected to the admin login page, you can enter the admin address manually:
You are now ready to start adding your content and configuring the look and feel of your site. Make sure you check out the excellent Subrion CMS documentation for more information about how to build and configure your site.