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Paste 2.1 is a simple and flexible, free and open source pastebin application for storing code, text and more. It was initially forked from the freely available original source code used by pastebin.com before the domain was sold in 2010. Since that time, the Paste developers have added lots of improvements and features such as a featureful Admin Dashboard with site statstics and settings, IP and user bans, the ability to selectively delete pastes, user accounts with social integration, profile pages, and all of the usual extras such as syntax highlighting for the majority of languages, configurable paste limits and much more.
In this tutorial we are going to install Paste 2.1 on a FreeBSD 11 FAMP VPS using Apache web server, PHP 7.1, and a MariaDB database.
We will start by adding a new
First, log into your server as
sudo command isn't installed by default in the Vultr FreeBSD 11 server instance, so we will first install
pkg install sudo
Now add a new user called
user1 (or your preferred username):
adduser command will prompt you for lots of details for the user account, so simply select the defaults for most of them when it makes sense to do so. When you are asked whether to
Invite user1 into any other groups?, you should enter
wheel to add
user1 to the
Now check the
/etc/sudoers file to make sure that the
sudoers group is enabled:
Look for a section like this:
# %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL
This line tells us that users who are members of the
wheel group can use the
sudo command to gain
root privileges. It will be commented out by default so you will need to uncomment it and then save and exit the file.
We can verify the
user1 group membership with the
user1 is not a member of the
wheel group, you can use this command to update the
user1 group membership:
pw group mod wheel -m user1
Now use the
su command to switch to the new sudo user
su - user1
The command prompt will update to indicate that you are now logged into the
user1 account. You can verify this with the
Now restart the
sshd service so that you can login via
ssh with the new non-root sudo user account you have just created:
sudo /etc/rc.d/sshd restart
root account (which will disconnect your
You can now
ssh into the server instance from your local host using the new non-root sudo user
If you want to execute sudo without having to type a password every time, then open the
/etc/sudoers file again, using
Edit the section for the
wheel group so that it looks like this:
%wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
Please note: Disabling the password requirement for the sudo user is not a recommended practice, but it is included here as it can make server configuration much more convenient and less frustrating, especially during longer systems administration sessions. If you are concerned about the security implications, you can always revert the configuration change to the original after you finish your administration tasks.
Whenever you want to log into the
root user account from within the
sudo user account, you can use one of the following commands:
sudo -i sudo su -
You can exit the
root account and return back to your
sudo user account any time by simply typing:
Before installing any packages on the FreeBSD server instance, we will first update the system.
Make sure you are logged in to the server using a non-root sudo user and run the following commands:
sudo freebsd-update fetch sudo freebsd-update install sudo pkg update sudo pkg upgrade
Install the Apache web server:
sudo pkg install apache24
y when prompted.
Now use the
sysrc command to enable the Apache service to execute automatically at boot time:
sudo sysrc apache24_enable=yes
sysrc command updates the
/etc/rc.conf configuration file, so if you want to verify the configuration update manually you can simply open the
/etc/rc.conf file with your favourite terminal editor:
Now start the Apache service:
sudo service apache24 start
You can quickly check that apache is running by visiting the IP address or domain of the server instance in your browser:
You will see the default FreeBSD Apache page displaying the text:
Check your Apache default configuration file to ensure that the
DocumentRoot directive points to the correct directory:
sudo vi /usr/local/etc/apache24/httpd.conf
DocumentRoot configuration option will look like this:
We now need to enable the
mod_rewrite Apache module. We can do this by searching the default Apache configuration file for the term
By default, the
mod_rewrite Apache module will be commented out (which means it is disabled). The configuration line on a clean Vultr FreeBSD 11 instance will look like this:
#LoadModule rewrite_module libexec/apache24/mod_rewrite.so
Simply remove the hash symbol to uncomment the line and load the module. This, of course, applies to any other required Apache modules too:
LoadModule rewrite_module libexec/apache24/mod_rewrite.so
We now need to edit The
Directory Apache directive in the same configuration file so that
mod_rewrite will work correctly with Paste.
Find the section of the configuration file that starts with
<Directory "/usr/local/www/apache24/data"> and change
AllowOverride none to
AllowOverride All. The end result (with all comments removed) will look something like this:
<Directory "/var/www/html"> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks AllowOverride All Require all granted </Directory>
Now save and exit the Apache configuration file.
We will restart Apache at the end of this tutorial, but restarting Apache regularly during installation and configuration is certainly a good habit, so let's do it now:
sudo service apache24 restart
We can now install PHP 7.1 along with all of the necessary PHP modules required by Paste:
sudo pkg install php71 mod_php71 php71-gd php71-mbstring php71-mysqli php71-xml php71-curl php71-ctype php71-tokenizer php71-simplexml php71-dom php71-session php71-iconv php71-hash php71-json php71-fileinfo php71-pdo php71-pdo_mysql php71-zlib php71-openssl php71-zip php71-phar
FreeBSD 11 gives us the option to use a development
php.ini or a production
php.ini. Since we are going to install Paste on a public web server, we'll use the production version. First, back up
sudo cp /usr/local/etc/php.ini-production /usr/local/etc/php.ini-production.backup
sudo ln -s /usr/local/etc/php.ini-production /usr/local/etc/php.ini
We need to configure Apache to actually use PHP, so let's create a new file called
php.conf in the Apache
sudo vi /usr/local/etc/apache24/Includes/php.conf
Enter the following text into the newly created file:
<IfModule dir_module> DirectoryIndex index.php index.html <FilesMatch "\.php$"> SetHandler application/x-httpd-php </FilesMatch> <FilesMatch "\.phps$"> SetHandler application/x-httpd-php-source </FilesMatch> </IfModule>
Save and exit the file.
Now let's restart Apache so that it can reload the configuration changes:
sudo service apache24 restart
FreeBSD 11 defaults to using MariaDB database server, which is an enhanced, fully open source, community developed, drop-in replacement for MySQL server.
Install the latest version of MariaDB database server:
sudo pkg install mariadb102-server mariadb102-client
Start and enable MariaDB server to execute automatically at boot time:
sudo sysrc mysql_enable="yes" sudo service mysql-server start
Secure your MariaDB server installation:
When prompted to create a MariaDB/MySQL
root user, select "Y" (for yes) and then enter a secure
root password. Simply answer "Y" to all of the other yes/no questions as the default suggestions are the most secure options.
Log into the MariaDB shell as the MariaDB
root user by running the following command:
sudo mysql -u root -p
To access the MariaDB command prompt, simply enter the MariaDB
root password when prompted.
Run the following queries to create a MariaDB database and database user for Paste:
CREATE DATABASE paste_db CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci; CREATE USER 'paste_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'UltraSecurePassword'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON paste_db.* TO 'paste_user'@'localhost'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT;
You can replace the database name
paste_db and username
paste_user with something more to your liking, if you prefer. Also, make sure that you replace "UltraSecurePassword" with an actually secure password.
Change your current working directory to the default web directory:
Your current working directory will now be:
/usr/local/www/apache24/data. You can check this with the
pwd (print working directory) command:
wget to download the Paste installation package:
sudo wget --content-disposition https://sourceforge.net/projects/phpaste/files/latest/download?source=files
Please note: You should definitely check for the most recent version by visiting the Paste download page.
List the current directory to check that you have successfully downloaded the file:
sudo rm index.html
Now uncompress the zip archive:
sudo unzip paste-2.1.zip
Move all of the installation files to the web root directory:
sudo mv paste-2.1/* /usr/local/www/apache24/data
Change ownership of the web files to avoid any permissions problems:
sudo chown -R www:www * ./
Restart Apache again:
sudo service apache24 restart
Now we're ready to move on to the final step.
It's time to visit the IP address of your server instance in your browser, or if you've already configured your Vultr DNS settings (and given it enough time to propagate) you can simply visit your domain instead.
To access the Paste installation page, enter your Vultr instance IP address into your browser address bar, followed by
Most of the installation options are self explanatory, but here are a few pointers to help you along:
Ensure that the
Pre-installation checks are all green. Specifically, the following 3 files must be
config.php tmp/temp.tdata sitemap.xml
Enter the following
Hostname: localhost Database Name: paste_db Username: paste_user Password: UltraSecurePassword
Make a note of the
key value and store it in a safe place, then click
Install to continue.
Enter the following Administrator details:
Username: admin Password: <secure admin password>
Submit to finalize the installation.
To access the admin section simply click on the
dashboard button and enter your username and password. If you aren't redirected to the admin login page, you can enter the admin address manually:
For security reasons, make sure you delete the
/install/ directory from the webroot directory:
sudo rm -rf ./install
If you get an error message when trying to delete the
/install/ directory, simply change the permissions of the webroot and try again:
sudo chmod 755 . sudo rm -rf ./install
You are now ready to start administering your own personal pastebin site.