Paste 2.1 is a simple and flexible, free and open source pastebin application for storing code, text and more. It was initially forked from the freely available original source code used by pastebin.com before the domain was sold in 2010. Since that time, the Paste developers have added lots of improvements and features such as a featureful Admin Dashboard with site statstics and settings, IP and user bans, the ability to selectively delete pastes, user accounts with social integration, profile pages, and all of the usual extras such as syntax highlighting for the majority of languages, configurable paste limits and much more.
In this tutorial we are going to install Paste 2.1 on a Fedora 26 LAMP VPS using Apache web server, PHP 7.1, and a MariaDB database.
We will start by adding a new
First, log into your server as
Add a new user called
user1 (or your preferred username):
Next, set the password for the
When prompted, enter a secure and memorable password.
Now check the
/etc/sudoers file to make sure that the
sudoers group is enabled:
Look for a section like this:
%wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL
Make sure it is uncommented. This line tells us that users who are members of the
wheel group can use the
sudo command to gain
Once you have edited the file, you can save and exit by pressing
Esc and then entering
:wq to "write" and "quit" the file.
Next we need to add
user1 to the
usermod -aG wheel user1
We can verify the
user1 group membership and check that the
usermod command worked with the
Now use the
su command to switch to the new sudo user
su - user1
The command prompt will update to indicate that you are now logged into the
user1 account. You can verify this with the
Now restart the
sshd service so that you can login via
ssh with the new non-root sudo user account you have just created:
sudo systemctl restart sshd
root account (which will disconnect your
You can now
ssh into the server instance from your local host using the new non-root sudo user
If you want to execute sudo without having to type a password every time, then open the
/etc/sudoers file again, using
Edit the section for the
wheel group so that it looks like this:
%wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
Please note: Disabling the password requirement for the sudo user is not a recommended practice, but it is included here as it can make server configuration much more convenient and less frustrating, especially during longer systems administration sessions. If you are concerned about the security implications, you can always revert the configuration change to the original after you finish your administration tasks.
Whenever you want to log into the
root user account from within the
sudo user account, you can use one of the following commands:
sudo -i sudo su -
You can exit the
root account and return back to your
sudo user account any time by simply typing:
Before installing any packages on the Fedora server instance, we will first update the system.
Make sure you are logged in to the server using a non-root sudo user and run the following command:
sudo dnf -y update
Install the Apache web server:
sudo dnf -y install httpd
Then use the
systemctl command to start and enable Apache to execute automatically at boot time:
sudo systemctl enable httpd sudo systemctl start httpd
Check your Apache configuration file to ensure that the
DocumentRoot directive points to the correct directory:
sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
DocumentRoot configuration option will look like this:
Now, let's make sure that the
mod_rewrite Apache module is loaded. We can do this by searching the Apache base modules configuration file for the term "
Open the file:
sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-base.conf
Search for the term
mod_rewrite Apache module is loaded, you will find a configuration line looking like this:
LoadModule rewrite_module modules/mod_rewrite.so
If the above line starts with a semi-colon, you will need to remove the semi-colon to uncomment the line and load the module. This, of course, applies to any other required Apache modules too.
We now need to edit Apache's default configuration file so that
mod_rewrite will work correctly with the Paste app.
Open the file:
sudo vi /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
Then find the section that starts with
<Directory "/var/www/html"> and change
AllowOverride none to
AllowOverride All. The end result (with all comments removed) will look something like this:
<Directory "/var/www/html"> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks AllowOverride All Require all granted </Directory>
Now save and close the Apache configuration file.
We will restart Apache at the end of this tutorial, but restarting Apache regularly during installation and configuration is certainly a good habit, so let's do it now:
sudo systemctl restart httpd
We now need to open the default
HTTPS ports as they will be blocked by
firewalld by default.
Open the firewall ports:
sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port=80/tcp sudo firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port=443/tcp
Reload the firewall to apply the changes:
sudo firewall-cmd --reload
You will see the word
success displayed in your terminal after each successful firewall configuration command.
We can quickly verify that the Apache
HTTP port is open by visiting the IP address or domain of the server instance in a browser:
You will see the default Apache web page in your browser.
SELinux stands for "Security Enhanced Linux". It is a security enhancement to Linux which allows users and administrators more control over access control. It is enabled by default in Fedora 26, but it is definitely not essential for server security as many Linux server distributions do not ship with it installed or enabled by default.
To avoid file permission problems with Paste later down the line, we are going to disable SELinux, for now. So open the SELinux configuration file with your favourite terminal editor:
sudo vi /etc/selinux/config
SELINUX=disabled and then save the file.
To apply the configuration change, SELinux requires a server reboot, so you can either restart the server using the Vultr control panel or you can simply use the
sudo shutdown -r now
When the server reboots, your SSH session will get disconnected and you may see a message informing you about a
'broken pipe' or
'Connection closed by remote host'. This is nothing to worry about, simply wait for 20 seconds or so and then SSH back in again (with your own username and domain):
Or (with your own username and IP address):
Once you have logged back in, you should check the status of SELinux again with the
sestatus command to make sure it is properly disabled:
You should see a message saying
SELinux status: disabled. If you see a message saying
SELinux status: enabled (or something similar) you will need to repeat the above steps and ensure that you properly restart your server.
We can now install PHP 7.1 along with all of the necessary PHP modules required by Paste:
sudo dnf -y install php php-mysqlnd php-mbstring php-gd php-common php-pdo php-pecl-imagick php-xml php-zip
Fedora 26 defaults to using MariaDB database server, which is an enhanced, fully open source, community developed, drop-in replacement for MySQL server.
Install MariaDB database server:
sudo dnf -y install mariadb-server
Start and enable MariaDB server to execute automatically at boot time:
sudo systemctl enable mariadb sudo systemctl start mariadb
Secure your MariaDB server installation:
root password will be blank, so simply hit enter when prompted for the
When prompted to create a MariaDB/MySQL
root user, select "Y" (for yes) and then enter a secure
root password. Simply answer "Y" to all of the other yes/no questions as the default suggestions are the most secure options.
Log into the MariaDB shell as the MariaDB
root user by running the following command:
sudo mysql -u root -p
To access the MariaDB command prompt, simply enter the MariaDB
root password when prompted.
Run the following queries to create a MariaDB database and database user for Paste:
CREATE DATABASE paste_db CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci; CREATE USER 'paste_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'UltraSecurePassword'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON paste_db.* TO 'paste_user'@'localhost'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT;
You can replace the database name
paste_db and username
paste_user with something more to your liking, if you prefer. Also, make sure that you replace "UltraSecurePassword" with an actually secure password.
Change your current working directory to the default web directory:
If you get an error message saying something like
'No such file or directory' then try the following command:
cd /var/www/ ; sudo mkdir html ; cd html
Your current working directory will now be:
/var/www/html/. You can check this with the
pwd (print working directory) command:
wget to download the Paste installation package:
sudo wget --content-disposition https://sourceforge.net/projects/phpaste/files/latest/download?source=files
Please note: You should definitely check for the most recent version by visiting the Paste download page.
List the current directory to check that you have successfully downloaded the file:
Let's quickly install
unzip so we can unzip the file:
sudo dnf -y install unzip
Now uncompress the zip archive:
sudo unzip paste-2.1.zip
Change ownership of the web files to avoid any permissions problems:
sudo chown -R apache:apache * ./
Restart Apache again:
sudo systemctl restart httpd
Now we're ready to move on to the final step.
It's time to visit the IP address of your server instance in your browser, or if you've already configured your Vultr DNS settings (and given it enough time to propagate) you can simply visit your domain instead.
To access the Paste installation page, enter your Vultr instance IP address into your browser address bar, followed by
Most of the installation options are self explanatory, but here are a few pointers to help you along:
Ensure that the
Pre-installation checks are all green. Specifically, the following 3 files must be
config.php tmp/temp.tdata sitemap.xml
Enter the following
Hostname: localhost Database Name: paste_db Username: paste_user Password: UltraSecurePassword
Make a note of the
key value and store it in a safe place, then click
Install to continue.
Enter the following Administrator details:
Username: admin Password: <secure admin password>
Submit to finalize the installation.
To access the admin section simply click on the
dashboard button and enter your username and password. If you aren't redirected to the admin login page, you can enter the admin address manually:
For security reasons, make sure you delete the
/install/ directory from the webroot directory:
sudo rm -rf ./install
If you get an error message when trying to delete the
/install/ directory, simply change the permissions of the webroot and try again:
sudo chmod 755 . sudo rm -rf ./install
You are now ready to start administering your own personal pastebin site.