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A Virtual Desktop hosted in the cloud is useful for many applications. This guide explains how to create a virtual desktop on a Debian server with NoMachine, a remote desktop application.
Before you begin this guide:
Install the required Gnome fonts.
$ sudo apt install xfonts-100dpi xfonts-100dpi-transcoded xfonts-75dpi xfonts-75dpi-transcoded xfonts-base
$ sudo apt install gnome
Start the Gnome desktop manager.
$ sudo systemctl start gdm
Verify that Gnome is running by checking the service status.
$ sudo systemctl status gdm
Switch the server from a terminal-based environment to the desktop environment.
$ sudo systemctl set-default graphical.target
You should see output like this:
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/default.target â /lib/systemd/system/graphical.target.
Reboot the server for the changes to take effect.
$ sudo reboot now
When the server reboots, it will end your SSH connection.
Copy the package to the server. Assuming you downloaded it to
~/Downloads on your local machine, you can copy it the server
/tmp directory with
$ scp ~/Downloads/nomachine_<version>_amd64.deb username@<server-ip-address>:~/tmp/
You can also use SFTP, or a graphical program like Filezilla or Cyberduck to copy the package to the server. If you use those methods, make note of where you upload the file.
Connect to the server as your sudo user with SSH.
Change to the
/tmp directory, or where you uploaded the package.
$ cd /tmp
$ sudo dpkg -i nomachine_<version>_amd64.deb
NX> 700 Installing: nxserver version: 7.9.2. NX> 700 Using installation profile: Debian. NX> 700 Install log is: /usr/NX/var/log/nxinstall.log. NX> 700 Creating configuration in: /usr/NX/etc/server.cfg. NX> 700 Install completed at: Wed Mar 30 20:38:15 2022. NX> 700 NoMachine was configured to run the following services: NX> 700 NX service on port: 4000
NoMachine is now installed on your server and ready to receive connections.
Changing the port number in the next four steps is optional.
The default port for NoMachine is 4000, but you can change the port if needed. Choose a port greater than 1024. For example, to change the port to 7000:
Edit the main configuration file using a text editor of your choice.
$ sudo nano /usr/NX/etc/server.cfg
Locate the following configuration line:
Uncomment it and change it to:
Save changes and close the file.
Allow the NoMachine port through the firewall.
If you did not change the port:
$ sudo ufw allow 4000
If you changed the port to 7000, for example:
$ sudo ufw allow 7000
nxserver to apply changes.
$ sudo systemctl restart nxserver
Restart the firewall.
$ sudo ufw reload
The first NoMachine connection may take a few minutes to set up the Gnome desktop applications.
For more information, refer to the NoMachine documentation.